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ISBN = {9780262525411},
URL = {},
abstract = {In this chapter we explore the nature of open development by examining how open models are reshaping the way we think about and implement international development. Indeed, the emergence of these novel experiments in the international development space has already begun to demonstrate the potential of open models for initiating positive change. We believe that these new open networked models can, and will be, transformative, but they will not necessarily lead to social good. Indeed, in an era of openness that embraces a diversity of perspectives and dialogue, it is difficult to state conclusively whatsocial goodmeans. Furthermore, their},
author = {Katherine M. A. Reilly and Matthew L. Smith and Yochai Benkler},
booktitle = {Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development},
pages = {15--50},
publisher = {Mit Press},
title = {The Emergence of Open Development in a Network Society},
year = {2013}
URL = {},
abstract = {The world of software engineering is in no way restricted to software companies. Beyond Microsoft or thousands of smaller software vendors, almost every corporation in the world keeps a stable of programmers in the basement to write little scripts that move the company’s e-mail and make the “add to cart” button do what it should. I am a programmer because I write simulations and statistical analyses. Even you are a software programmer if you use the Record Macro feature of your spreadsheet or word processor.The variety in types of software producers engenders two distinct methods of pricing software. One,},
author = {Ben Klemens},
booktitle = {Math You Can't Use: Patents, Copyright, and Software},
pages = {92--107},
publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
title = {The Decentralized Software Market},
year = {2006}
ISBN = {9780674729063},
URL = {},
abstract = {Globalization of the computer industry accelerated dramatically between 1995 and 2010. This globalization involved hardware, software, and services, but it was deeper, and happened earlier, in hardware than in software and services.Table 12.1 presents the top 10 computer hardware firms in the world in 2009, and Table 12.2 shows the top 20 in computer software and services. (Classifying an enterprise as a “hardware” or “software” firm is somewhat arbitrary, since many of the top IT companies are highly diversified; a firm is ranked by analysts according to the segment in which the company was generating the most revenues in},
booktitle = {From Mainframes to Smartphones: A History of the International Computer Industry},
pages = {184--202},
publisher = {Harvard University Press},
title = {Globalization},
year = {2015}
author={Atal, Vidya and Shankar, Kameshwari},
title={Open source software: competition with a public good},
journal={Atlantic Economic Journal},
ISSN = {15313468, 15372618},
URL = {},
abstract = {The spectacular growth of the software industry in some non-G7 economies has aroused both interest and concern. This paper addresses two sets of interrelated issues. First, we explore the determinants of success in software in emerging economies. We then touch on the broader issue of the lessons, if any, that can be applied to economic development more generally. From the U.S. perspective, we think that the interesting debate is not the current one about the impact of outsourcing on jobs, but instead the one about whether offshoring of software is a long-term threat to American technological leadership. We conclude that policymakers in the United States should not fear the growth of new software-producing regions. Instead, the U.S. economy will broadly benefit from their growth. U.S. technological leadership rests in part on the continued position of the United States as the primary destination for highly trained and skilled scientists and engineers from the world over. Though this leadership position is likely to persist for some time, the increasing attractiveness of foreign emerging-economy destinations is a long-term concern for continued U.S. technological leadership.},
author = {Ashish Arora and Alfonso Gambardella},
journal = {Innovation Policy and the Economy},
pages = {1--32},
publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
title = {The Globalization of the Software Industry: Perspectives and Opportunities for Developed and Developing Countries},
volume = {5},
year = {2005}
ISSN = {08953309},
URL = {},
author = {Josh Lerner and Jean Tirole},
journal = {The Journal of Economic Perspectives},
number = {2},
pages = {99--120},
publisher = {American Economic Association},
title = {The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond},
volume = {19},
year = {2005}
ISBN = {9780674729063},
URL = {},
abstract = {This compact history traces the computer industry from 1950s mainframes, through establishment of standards beginning in 1965, to personal computing in the 1980s and the Internet’s explosive growth since 1995. Martin Campbell-Kelly and Daniel Garcia-Swartz describe a steady trend toward miniaturization and explain its consequences.},
publisher = {Harvard University Press},
title = {From Mainframes to Smartphones: A History of the International Computer Industry},
year = {2015}
author = {Mikko Mustonen},
journal = {Information Economics and Policy},
number = {15},
pages = {99--121},
publisher = {Elsevier Science B.V.},
year = {2002},
title = {Copyleft--the economics of Linux and other open source software}
title = {What is the relationship between Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux?},
url = {},
urldate = {2019-11-18},
publisher = {Red Hat, Inc}
title = {2017 State of Linux Kernel Development},
url = {},
urldate = {2019-11-18},
publisher = {The Linux Foundation},
year = {2017}
ISBN = {9780691196169},
URL = {},
abstract = {The Internet is perfectly designed for sharing—making data, information, and knowledge free. It is a pure expression of the idea of a commons—something everyone can use and share—and an equally pure expression of an ideal of collective intelligence not controlled by traditional power.But many of the organizations that dominate the Internet are organized on almost-opposite principles, run as private companies selling access, targeted advertising, and personal data to third parties. These have contributed to enormous gains for consumers along with huge wealth for entrepreneurs and investors. The models adopted by firms like Uber, Facebook, and eBay},
author = {GEOFF MULGAN},
booktitle = {Big Mind: How Collective Intelligence Can Change Our World},
pages = {200--214},
publisher = {Princeton University Press},
title = {The Rise of Knowledge Commons: It’s for Everyone},
year = {2018}